Creation and Dispossession: Shenandoah National Park and its Residents

Scope: 

The creation of Shenandoah National Park led to the dispossession of established families, and subsequently created a welfare class. Justification of the removals was based on stereotypes held by outsiders; residents of Shenandoah were portrayed in the media as pioneer squatters and "our eighteenth century counterparts". The National Park Service has all but wiped out Shenandoah National Park's human history. The Shenandoah removals remain a sore subject among descendants of the evicted and recent studies have broadened awareness of the selective history the park chooses to present its visitors. Archaeological excavations at homesteads within the park refute notions of Shenandoah families as isolated and backward.

Introductory Text: 

Lambert, Darwin.  The Undying Past of Shenandoah National Park.  Boulder: Roberts Rinehart, Inc. 1989.  App. Coll. F 232 .S48 L37 1989  (Specifically pages xi-xxi, 172-187 and 227-255.)

Smith, Dorothy Noble.  Recollections: The People of the Blue Ridge Remember.  Berryville, Virginia: Virginia Book Company, 1983.  App. Coll. F 232 .S48 S65 1983. (Specifically pages 6-17, 73-75.  However, her lack of citation should be questioned.)

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 

most relevant:

  • Shenandoah National Park
  • Shenandoah National Park (Va.) - History
  • Shenandoah River Valley (Va. And W. Va.) - History

also relevant:

  • Internally Displaced Persons - Virginia - History
  • Mountain People - Virginia - Shenandoah National Park - Social life and customs
Clipping Files Subject Headings - W.L. Eury Appalachian Collection: 
  • Culture
  • Shenandoah National Park
  • Mountain People
Library of Congress Call Numbers: 
Books: 

Lambert, Darwin. The Earth-Man Story; Starring Shenandoah Skyline . New York: Exposition Press, 1972. App Coll. F232 .S48 L37.

Lambert, Darwin. The Undying Past of Shenandoah National Park . Boulder, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart, Inc. 1989. App Coll. STACKS: F232 .S48 L37 1989.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr. and Nancy J. Martin-Perdue. "Appalachian Fables and Facts: A Case Study of the Shenandoah National Park Removals." Appalachian Journal. Boone, North Carolina: Appalachian State University. V.7, N. 1-2, Autumn/Winter 1979-80: 84-104. App. Coll. F 216.2 .A66

Reeder, Carolyn, and Jack Reeder. Shenandoah Heritage: The Story of the People Before the Park . Washington, DC: Potomac Appalachian Trail Club, 1978. App Coll. F232 .S5 R43.

Sherman, Mandel and Thomas E. Henry. Hollow Folk . Berryville, VA: Berryville Book Company, 1933. App Coll. F210 .S53 1973.

Harvey, Gwen Russell and Alice Hoffman. "A New Deal for the Mountain Folk: Recollections of the Resettlement Administration." Blue Ridge Parkway: Agent of Transition; Proceedings of the Blue Ridge Parkway Golden Anniversary Conference. (91-97) Boone, North Carolina: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1986. 272 pages. App Coll. F217 .B6 B585 1986.

Speer, Jean Haskell. "Hillbilly Sold Here: Appalachian Folk Culture and Parkway Tourism." Parkways: Past, Present, and Future, Proceedings of the Second Biennial Linear Parks Conference, 1987. Boone, North Carolina: Appalachian Consortium Press, c1989. (p. 212-220). App Coll. SB 481 .A2 L55 1987.

Guides, Encyclopedias, and Dictionaries: 

Conners, John A. Shenandoah National Park: An Interpretive Guide. Blacksburg, VA: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Co.App Coll. F232 .S48 C66 1988.

Encyclopedia Americana

Encyclopedia Britannica

Bibliographies: 

Appalachian Bibliography. Morgantown, West Virginia: West Virginia University Library. 2 vols. in one. App Coll. Z 1251 .A7 A6 1980.

Appalachian Outlook. Morgantown, West Virginia: West Virginia University Library. App Coll. Z 1251 .A7 A55.

Cappon, Lester Jesse. Bibliography of Virginia History Since 1865. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Miche Company, Printers, 1930. App. Coll. Z 1345 .C25 (Pages 46, 314-315.)

Ross, Charlotte T., ed. Bibliography of Southern Appalachia. Boone, North Carolina; Appalachian State University, 1976. App. Coll. Z 1251 . A7 B5x.

Abstracts and Indices: 

America: History and Life. http://sb1.abc-clio.com:81/

Dissertation Abstracts. http://www.library.appstate.edu/home/elecres/titlender.html#D

Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism Abstracts. (Tour CD) http://www.library.appstate.edu/home/elecres/titlendex.html

Journals: 

Palmer, Catherine Bell. "Appalachian Valley Pilgrimage." The National Geographic Magazine, V. XCVI, N. 1. Washington: July, 1949.

O'Donnel Bill. "Whispers of the Past: Ancient Markers Tell Shenandoah's Previous Lives." 7 April 1996, H1, H3.

Smith, Leef. "Anger In Appalachia: Researchers Fighting to Open Records on 1930's Shenandoah Park Resettlement." Washington Post 6 March 2000.

Woodward, Calvin "Shenandoah's Last Children." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution , April 20, 1997.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr. and Nancy J. Martin-Perdue. "Appalachian Fables and Facts: A Case Study of the Shenandoah National Park Removals." Appalachian Journal. v.7:1-2, Autumn/Winter 1979-80 issue, pp. 84-104. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F216.2 .A66.

Appalachian Journal. Quarterly. Boone, North Carolina: Appalachian State University. App. Coll. F 216.2 .A66

Journal of Leisure Research. Quarterly. Arlington, Virginia: National Recreation and Park Association. ASU Bound Periodicals, Serial V. 1-, 1969-

National Parks. Monthly. Washington, D.C. : National Parks Association. ASU Bound Periodicals, Serial V. 51-, 1981-

Websites: 

"The Ground Beneath Our Feet" http://www.vahistory.org/shenandoah.html

"National Park Service Shenandoah Homepage" http://www.nps.gov/shen

Audio and Video Sources: 

"National Parks of the Appalachians." Whittier, California: Finley-Holiday Film Corp., 1989. App. Coll. VC 35

"Shenandoah, The Gift." Whittier, California: Finley-Holiday Film Corp.; Presented by the National Park Service. App. Coll. VC 108

Compiled by: 

Compiler: Caroline Knight, 29 November 2000

Updated by: 

UPDATED: Cameron Farlow, 8 October 2009