Internal Migration: Appalachian Urban Areas

Scope: 

Migration away from the Appalachian region is a subject with an overabundance of resources available.  Topics that center on internal migration within the Appalachian region are less copious.  This pathfinder is designed to acquaint individuals with basic resources dealing with internal rural to urban migration within the Appalachian Regional Commission’s defined Appalachian region.  Urban areas with a population of 20,000 or more are the focus for this pathfinder.  Population figures are taken from the Rand McNally 2003 Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide.  The exception is Cincinnati, Ohio because it is the headquarters for the Urban Appalachian Council. 

Urban Areas Within Appalachia That Meet Defined Criterion:  Cincinnati, Ohio; Tuscaloosa, Alabama; Huntsville, Alabama; Birmingham, Alabama; Montgomery, Alabama; Ashland, Kentucky; Richmond, Kentucky; Tupelo, Mississippi; Wheeling, West Virginia; Charleston, West Virginia; Atlanta, Georgia; Rome, Georgia; Spartanburg, South Carolina; Greenville, South Carolina; Asheville, North Carolina; Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Lynchburg, Virginia; Staunton, Virginia; Roanoke, Virginia; Johnson City, Tennessee; Knoxville, Tennessee; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Bristol, Tennessee

Introductory Text: 

Satterwhite, Emily.  “Seeing Appalachian Cities”.  Appalachia:  Social Context Past and Present.  Eds., Obermiller, Phillip J. and Michael E. Maloney.  Dubuque, Iowa:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2002.  104-107.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HN79. A13 A788 2002

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 

Highly Relevant:

  • Rural-urban migration—Appalachian Region; Migration, Internal—Appalachian Region

Relevant:

  • Appalachian region—Economic conditions; Urban Poor

General:

  • Urban-rural migration—Appalachian Region; Appalachian Region—Social life and customs; Human beings—Migration

Related:

  • Appalachians (People); City dwellers—United States; Urban residents
Clipping Files Subject Headings - W.L. Eury Appalachian Collection: 

Highly Relevant:

  • Asheville, NC; Bristol, TN; Chattanooga, TN; Hickory, NC;  Huntington, WV; Johnson, City, TN; Knoxville, TN

Relevant:

  • Appalachia—Economic Conditions, poverty; Appalachia—Politics & Government; Appalachia—Social Programs; Appalachian Adult Education Center—Education—Adult; Appalachian Regional Development Program; Highlander Research Center; Mental Health; Migrant Labor; Migration; Mills; Poverty; Poverty Workers

General:

  • Appalachian Regional Commission; Appalachian Studies Program; Housing—Appalachia

Related:

  • Council of the Southern Mountains; Environment—Air, Power Plants, Water; Hazardous Substances; Land Use; Mental Health; Museums; Museum of Appalachia; NC—History; NC—Division of Archives and History; NC—Politics and Government; NC—Western—History; Southern Appalachian Historical Society; Stereotypes; Tennessee—History; Unemployment; Veterans; West Virginia—History    
Library of Congress Call Numbers: 
  • F159
  • F217
  • F499. C59
  • HN79
  • F225. B42
  • HT384
  • HB2126.G5
  • HE20
  • HV4046. C38
  • HT334.U5
  • TR6. N8
  • BX8968. A8
  • E184.A1
Books: 

Appalachia:  Social Context Past and Present.  Eds., Obermiller, Phillip J. and Michael E. Maloney.  Dubuque, Iowa:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2002.  87-108.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HN79. A13 A788 2002

Down Home, Downtown: Urban Appalachians Today.  Ed., Obermiller, Phillip J.  Dubuque, Iowa:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1996.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HT384. U5 D65 1996.

Obermiller, Phillip J. and Thomas Wagner.  Valuing Our Past, Creating Our Future: The Founding of the Appalachian Regional Commission.  Berea, Kentucky:  Berea College Press, 1999.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HV4046. C38 W34 1999.

Too Few Tomorrows:  Urban Appalachians in the 1980’s.  Eds. Obermiller, Phillip J. and William W. Philliber.  Boone, North Carolina:  Appalachian Consortium Press, 1987.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: F217. A65 T66 1987.

Schwarzweller, Harry K., James S. Brown, and J. J. Mangalam.  Urban Families in Transition: A Case Study of Appalachian Migration.  University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HN79. K4 S35 1971.

From Mountain to Metropolis:  Appalachian Migrants in American CitiesBorman, Kathryn M. and Phillip J. Obermiller.  Westport, Connecticut:  Bergin & Garvey, 1994.  ASU APP COLL STACK: F217. A65 F76 1994.

Gottlieb, Peter.  Making Their Own Way: Southern Blacks’ Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-1930.  Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1987.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: F159. O69 N44 1987.

Perspectives on Urban Appalachians:  An Introduction to Mountain Life, Migration, and Urban Adaptation, and a Guide to the Improvement of Social Services.  Eds., Weiland, Steven and Phillip J. Obermiller; Ass. Eds., Maloney, Michael and Thomas Wagner; Ed. Ass., Carte, Elaine and Cathy Jacobs.  Cincinnati, Ohio:  Urban Appalachian Awareness Project, 1978.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: HV4028. P47 1978.

The Invisible Minority, Urban Appalachians. William W. Philliber and Clyde McCoy. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1981. ASU SPEC APP COLL: HN79.A13 158

The Atlas of American Migration.  New York, New York: Facts on File, 1998.  1-5.  ASU REFERENCE: G1201. E27 F5 1998.

Billings, Dwight and David Walls.  “Appalachians: Migration and Resettlement”.  Stephan Thernstrom, Ann Orlov, and Oscar, eds.  Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Belknap Press, 1980.  126-127.  ASU REFERENCE: E184. A1 H35.

Corley, Robert G.  “Birmingham”.  Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, eds.  Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina:  University of North Carolina Press, 1989.  1454.  ASU REFERENCE: F209. E53 1989.

Crimmins, Timothy J.  “Atlanta”.  Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, eds.  Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina:  University of North Carolina Press, 1989.  1452-1453.  ASU REFERENCE: F209. E53 1989.

Goldfield, David R.  “Urban Poor”.  Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, eds.  Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina:  University of North Carolina Press, 1989.  1450-1451.  ASU REFERENCE: F209. E53 1989. 

Silver, Christopher.  “Richmond”.  Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, eds.  Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina:  University of North Carolina Press, 1989.  1465-1466.  ASU REFERENCE: F209. E53 1989.

Bibliographies: 

Baird, Rebecca.  Historical Appalachian Out-Migration.  12/1/2003.  W. L. Eury Collection.

Fisher, Steve.  “A Selective Bibliography for Appalachian Studies.”  Appalachian Journal  9.2-3 (1982):  209-242.  [Relevant Pages 222-223].  ASU APP COLL STACKS: F106. A137 G6.

Maloney, Michael E. and Russ V. Moore.  “An Appalachian Bibliography and Resource Guide.”  Episcopal Appalachian Ministries: A Coalition of Episcopal Dioceses.  <http://visit-eam.org/RerSource.html>. Did not review.

"Migration, Population, Urban Appalachians." West Virginia University Libraries: Appalachian Studies Bibliography 1994-2002.
http://www.libraries.wvu.edu/bibliography/migration.htm.

Nelsen, Hart M., Anne K. Nelsen and assistance James K. Miller.  Bibliography on Appalachia:  A Guide to Studies Dealing with Appalachian in General, and Including Rural and Urban Working Class Attitudes Towards Religion, Education, and Social Change.Bowling Green, Kentucky:  Western Kentucky University, Officer of Research and Services, 1967.  19-28.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  Z1251. A7 N4.
 
Obermiller, Phillip J.  An Annotated Bibliography on Urban Appalachians.  Cincinnati, Ohio:  Urban Appalachian Council, 1984.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  Z7164. D3 O24 1984.

--. "Selected Readings on Appalachian Migration and Urban Appalachians." Urban Appalachian Council.
http://www.uacvoice.org/bibliography.html.

Roark, Stephanie.  Migration from Appalachia: Central Appalachians in Midwestern Cities.  10/21/1997.  W. L. Eury Collection.

West Virginia University.  Appalachian Bibliography, 1980.  Morgantown, West Virginia: West Virginia University Library, 1980.  ASU APP COLL STACKS: Z1251. A7 A6 1980 c.2.  [Relevant key terms from index: Migration—Cincinnati, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, South Carolina, Statistics, Virginia; Urban Appalachian Council; Urban Renewal—Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio; Urbanization—Kentucky North Carolina, Pennsylvania, West Virginia].

Abstracts and Indices: 

American History and Life:  Index of various publications from 1954 to present.  Helpful in finding historical and social science oriented materials.  Some useful keywords are: internal migration--Appalachia; urban/urbanization--Appalachia; cities--Appalachia (For more specific results, name specific urban areas instead of “Appalachia”.)

MLA:  Index of primarily literary publications from 1963 to present.  Helpful for research on literature written about particular Appalachia issues.  For example, novels such as The Dollmaker will appear when searching for “migration and Appalachia”.  Other helpful keywords:  migration--Cincinnati; migration and Appalachia (For more specific results, name specific urban areas instead of “Appalachia”.)

Sociology Abstract:  Index of sociological materials from 1963 to present.  Most helpful of the three indecies mentioned for scholarly publications on internal migration in Appalachia.  Useful keywords: migration and Appalachia; cities and Appalachia; internal migration and Appalachia (For more specific results, name specific urban areas instead of “Appalachia”.)

Journals: 

Appalachian Journal. Boone, North Carolina: Appalachian State University, Quarterly, Autumn, 1974-, Semiannual, Autumn, 1972-Spring 1974.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  F216.2 A66.

Journal of Appalachian Studies. Morgantown, West Virginia: Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University for the Appalachian Studies Association, Semiannual, 1995 to present.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  F106.J74.

Journal of Social History. Fairfax, Virginia: Center for History and New Media, George Mason University, Quarterly, 1967

Journal of Urban History. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications, Bi-monthly, 1974 to present. ASU PERIODICALS.
 
Mountain Life & Work.  Berea, Kentucky: Berea College.  1925 - 1988.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  GR103 .M5.

People’s Appalachia.  Morgantown, West Virginia: Peoples' Appalachian Research Collective.  1970 - 1973.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  HN79 .A13 A8.

Social Science Quarterly. Austin, Texas: Southwestern Social Science Association and the University of Texas, Quarterly, 1968 to present. ASU PERIODICALS.

Urban Appalachian Voice.  Cincinnati, Ohio: Urban Appalachian Council.  1988 to present.  ASU APP COLL STACKS:  F106 .J74.

Audio and Video Sources: 

Long Journey Home.  Dir. Elizabeth Barret and Herb E. Smith.  Whitesburg, KY: Appalshop Films, 1987.  ASU APP COLL VIDEO:  VC 54.

Compiled by: 

Compiler: Sarah Jean Joslin, 13 December 2004

Updated by: 

Updated: Lauren Byram, 6 December 2010

Subject: