Apples in Appalachia


Much of the literature on apples in Appalachia is in the form of newspaper or magazine articles, publications through North Carolina Agriculture Extension, and publications through the Department of Agriculture in Raleigh. Apples have been an important product in the Appalachian Region since the 1860s when Jarvis Van Buren aided the South in classifying and cultivating desired varieties. The Appalachian Mountains provide an ideal location for growing apples, both for personal consumption and as an economic investment. The climate of the mountains provides both adequate rainfall and appropriate temperature variations to support these fruit bearing trees. The following literature provides an introduction to the history and relevance of apples in Appalachia. This document is designed to be an introduction to apples in Appalachia, but due limits on general literature, it also includes documents published regarding growing and production, that while more specific, gives the reader a better grasp of the economics involved with apple production in Appalachia.

Introductory Text: 

Davis, Donald E. “Apples.” Abramson, Rudy and Jean Haskell. Encyclopedia of Appalachia. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 2006. ASU App Coll F106.E53 Pp 409-410.

Browning, Frank, and Sharon Silva. An Apple Harvest: Recipes and Orchard Lore. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press, 1999. ASU App Coll TX 813.A6 B76

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 

Highly Relevant

  • Apples
  • Appalachia - Apples
  • Apples (cookery)

Also Relevant

  • Apples—Law and legislation—United States
  • Orchards—Southern States—Handbook Materials
  • Apples—Cooperative Marketing
  • Apples—Pest and Disease Management
  • Apples—Genetics
  • Apple Growers
  • Apples-Harvesting
  • Apple Industry
  • Apples—Irrigation—Southern States
  • Apples—Kentucky—Wallingford
  • Apples—Law and Legislation
  • Apples—Marketing
  • Apples—NC—Marketing--Directories
  • Apples—NC—Propagation
  • Apples—North Carolina—Storage
  • Apples—North Carolina—Cooling
  • Apples--Ohio
  • Apples—Rootstocks-United States
  • Apples—WV—Marketing
  • Apples-VA-Wise County, VA
  • Agriculture—Cooperative—United States
  • Fruit—Harvesting
  • Fruit Trade—Appalachian Region
  • Orchards—Southern States
  • Pesticide—Risk Management—North Carolina
Clipping Files Subject Headings – W. L. Eury Appalachian Collection: 

Highly Relevant

  • Apples

Also Relevant

  • Agriculture
  • Watauga County Farmers Market
Library of Congress Call Numbers: 
  • A109.10.64
  • A7530
  • A553
  • A56 12
  • F404
  • F232.S5 S52
  • F217.A65 F694
  • F444.K5 M66
  • G46.2 2:A645
  • HD9259.A6U525
  • HD9259.J3
  • PS3557.R685 W5
  • TX813.A6
  • SB117.35.N6 A9
  • SB363.W93
  • SB363. J86
  • SB363. B725
  • SB363.6.535
  • SB363.2.U6 083
  • SB363.A1 M67
  • Y1.V8.10636
Guides, Encyclopedias, and Dictionaries: 

“A Consumer Guide to North Carolina’s Roadside Apple Markets.” Asheville, NC: NC Department of Agriculture, Division of Marketing, 1996. ASU Microform A915:A64 1996-2004.

Bryant, Ron D. Kentucky History: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. Pp 67.

Calhoun, Lee. “Apples.” The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Agriculture and Industry. Volume 11. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Pp 141-142.

Cappon, Lester J. Bibliography of Virginia History Since 1865. Charlottesville, VA: The Michie Company Printers, 1930. Pp 90, 133, 136, 205, 228, 262, 271, 1053.

Edge, John T. The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Foodways. Volume 7. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Pp 21, 135, 224, 232, 267.

“Fruit Industry.” Appalachian Bibliography. Volume 1. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Library, 1972. Pp 538-539.

Forbes, Harold. West Virginia History: A Bibliography and Guide to Research. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press, 1981. Pp 748,832.

Munn, Robert. The Southern Appalachians: A Bibliography and Guide to Studies. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Library, 1961. ASU SPEC APP COLL Z 1251.A7 M8 1961. Pp 2-3.

Abstracts and Indices: 

The Appalachian State Library Catalog offers a few online resources that show some relevant work. Search words include: “apples,” “apples and Appalachia.”

Jstor - Jstor offers a multitude of resources with its primary content coming from over one thousand scholarly journals.

Agricola - (Agriculture Online Access) This site is compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and yielded many results with search terms, “apples,” “apples and Appalachia,” “apples and sustainable agriculture,” “apples and North Carolina.”

Environmental Complete - This site yielded many results using the search terms, “apples,” “apples and Appalachia,” “North Carolina Apples,” “Virginia apples,” “West Virginia apples,” and “sustainable agriculture and apples.”


Ambrose, J.T. “Apple Pollination.” Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Agricultural Extension, 1990. ASU Microform A7530:415.

Boyetter, M.D. “Post harvesting Cooling and Handling of Apples.” North Carolina Agricultural Extension Services, 1989. ASU Microform NC A75 30:413-1

Cope, Gregory W. “Pesticides and Human Health: Apples.” North Carolina Agricultural Extension, 1999. ASU Microform G46.2 2:A645

“Drought Assistance For Fruit Tree Production.” North Carolina Agricultural Extension, 1994. ASU Microform A750:519-11

“Integrated Orchard Management Guide for Commercial Apples in Southeast.” Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension. ASU Microform A7530:572, 2001, 2004, 2005.

Parker, Michael C. “High Density Apple Orchard Management.” NC Agricultural Extension, 1998. ASU Microform A7530:581

“Pest and Orchard Management Guide for North Carolina Apples.” Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension. ASU Microform A75 30:37 1997.

“Rootstocks For Improving Apple Production Efficiency in North Carolina.” North Carolina Agricultural Extension, 1989. ASU Microform A7530:292


North Carolina Cooperative Extension:

Apple Journal:

All About Apples.

FEDCO: Coop Garden Supplies:

North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Human Services:

SARE: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education:

Carolina Farm Stewardship Association:

Compiled by: 

Compiler: Hannah Furgiuele, 30 November 2009