Melungeon History, Research, and Resources


This pathfinder contains materials pertaining to the Melungeon ethnic group. Melungeons are primarily found in the Central Appalachian region of east Tennessee, southwest Virginia, and east Kentucky. This pathfinder contains general history, cultural studies, linguistic studies, genetic studies, fiction, and nonfiction works about the Melungeons.

Introductory Text: 

“Melungeon.” Wikipedia. (Accessed 10/5/2008)

Everett, C. S. “Melungeon History and Myth.” Appalachian Journal. 26. 4 (1999): 358-409. ASU App Coll: F216.2.A66

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 

Highly relevant:

  • Melungeons
  • Melungeons in literature
  • Melungeons -- Fiction
  • Melungeons -- Genealogy
  • Melungeons -- History


  • Racially mixed people -- Appalachian Region

More general:

  • Hancock County (Tenn.) -- Genealogy
  • Hancock County (Tenn.) -- History
  • Vardy (Tenn.) -- Genealogy
  • Vardy (Tenn.) -- History
Library of Congress Call Numbers: 
  • E184.M44
  • E185.62
  • F220.M44
  • F436.M
  • F445.M44
  • GN295.M4
  • PS286.A6

Ball, Bonnie. The Melungeons: Their Origin and Kin. VA: n.p., 1970. 71 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: E184.M44 B34 1969.

Bible, Jean P. The Melungeons, Yesterday and Today. TN: Bible, 1975. 125 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F445.M44 B52.

Hashaw, Tim. Children of Perdition: Melungeons and the Struggle of Mixed America. GA: Mercer University Press, 2006. 182 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: E184.M44 H37 2006.

Hirschman, Elizabeth C. Melungeons: The Last Lost Tribe in America. GA: Mercer University Press, 2005. 186 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: E184.M44 H57 2005.

Kennedy, Brent N. The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People. GA: Mercer University Press, c1997. 180 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F445.M44 J64.

Bone, Patrick. A Melungeon Winter. TN: Silver Dagger Mysteries, c2001. 202 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: PS3552.O598 M4 2001.

Haun, Mildred. The Hawk’s Done Gone. IN: Merrill Company, 1940. 356 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F436.5 D36.

Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds. Sang Spell. NY: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, c1998. 176 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: PZ7.N24 San 1998.

Stuart, Jessee. Daughter of the Legend. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1965. 249 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: PZ3.S9306.

Vande Brake, Katherine. How They Shine: Melungeon Characters in the Fiction of Appalachia. GA: Mercer University Press, 2001. 298 pages. ASU APP COLL STACKS: PS286.A6 V36 2001.

Guides, Encyclopedias, and Dictionaries: 

Cavender, P. D. “Melungeons.” An Encyclopedia of East Tennessee. Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, eds. Oak Ridge, TN: Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge, 1981. p. 316-317. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F442.1 .E53.

Converse, P. D. “Melungeons.” Dictionary of American History. James Truslow Adams and R. V. Coleman, ed. NY: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1940. 6 vols. See vol. III (1940). p. 371. ASU MAIN STACKS: E174 .A43.

Kennedy, Brent. “Melungeons.” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. TN: Rutledge Hill Press, c1998. p. 604. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F436.T525. (Accessed 10/05/2008)


Appalachian Studies Bibliography 1994-1998: Ethnicity and Race, African Americans, Immigrants, Native Americans. WV: West Virginia University Library, Appalachian Collection. (Accessed 10/08/2008).

Langdon, Barbara. Melungeons: An Annotated Bibliography: References in Both Fiction and Non-Fiction. 82 pages. Woodville, Texas: Dogwood Press, 1998. ASU APP COLL STACKS: Z1251.M35 L36 1998.

Nassau, Mike. Open Directory Project: Melungeon. (Accessed 10/7/08).

Abstracts and Indices: 

America: History and Life covers United States History and Culture, including: Popular Culture, American Studies, Literature and Folklore, Genealogy, and Multicultural and Interdisciplinary Studies.

JSTOR covers African American Studies, Anthropology, Asian Studies, Ecology, Education, History, Literature, Philosophy, Political Science, Population Studies, Sociology, and Statistics.

Ethnic NewsWatch provides full text access to 200 newspapers, magazines, and journals of the minority and ethnic press.

Academic OneFile covers the Social Sciences, the Arts, Theology, Literature, Current News, and other subjects.


Allen, Lee A. “Introduction to Melungeon Bibliography.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin. 55 (1991): 122-157. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

DeMarce, Virginia E. “Looking at Legends — Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-Racial Isolate Settlements.” National Genealogical Society Quarterly. 81 (March 1993): 24-25. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Evans, E. Raymond. “The Graysville Melungeons: A Tri-racial People in Lower East Tennessee.” Tennessee Antrhopologist. 1979. IV(1): 1-31. Available online: (Accessed 10/08/2008).

Hirschman, E. C. “Elder John Sparks on Melungeons: The Last Lost Tribe in America.” Appalachian Journal. 33. 2 (2006): 210-221.

McGowan, K. “Where Do We Come From? The Melungeons, Who Count Elvis Presley and Abraham Lincoln Among Their Kin, Turn to DNA Genealogy to Resolve a Long-Standing Identity Crisis.” Discover. 24 (2003): 58-63. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Rubin, Rachel. “’What Ain’t Called Melungeons Is Called Hillbillies’: Southern Appalachia’s In-Between People.” Forum for Modern Language Studies. 40. 3 (2004): 259-278. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Shaub, Earl L., ed. “Melungeons: The Mystery People of Tennessee.” The Tennessee Conversationist (August 1959): 18-19. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Shepard, Lewis. “Romantic Account of the Celebrated ‘Melungeon’ Case.” Watson’s Magazine. 17. 1 (May 1913): 34-40. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Winkler, W. “Kathryn L. Staley on Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia.” Appalachian Journal. 33. 2 (2006): 222-225.

Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review. Boone, NC: Appalachian State University. Vol. 1, 1972 to present. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F216.2 .A66.

Appalachian Quarterly: People, Places, History, Heritage. VA: Wise County Historical Society. Vol. 1, 1996 to present. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F217.A65 A657.

Henige, David. “Henige Answers Wilson.” Appalachian Journal. (Spring 1998): 297-298. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F216.2 .A66.

Wilson, Darlene. “A Response to Henige.” Appalachian Journal. (Spring 1998): 286-297. ASU APP COLL STACKS: F216.2 .A66.


Melungeon Heritage Association. Melungeon Heritage Association Website. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

American Local History Network. Melungeon Research. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Goins, Jack. Jack Goins’ Research: Melungeon and Appalachian. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Melungeon Origin, History of Melungeons. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Melungeon-DNA. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Historical Melungeons. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Melungeon. (Acccessed 10/08/2008).

Other Sources: 

Barr, Phyllis Cox. The Melugeons of Newman’s Ridge. Graduate thesis. Department of English Faculty, East Tennessee State University, 1965. 40 leaves. ASU APP COLL STACKS: E184.M44 B37 1965a.

Burks, Jacquelin Daniel. The Treatment of the Melungeon in General Literature and Belletristic Works: A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School, Tennessee Technological University. Tennessee Technological University, 1973. 112 leaves. ASU APP COLL STACKS: E184.M44 B87 1972a.

Ivey, Saundra Keyes. Oral, Printed, and Popular Culture Traditions Related to the Melungeons of Hancock County, Tennessee. Thesis (PhD). Indiana University, 1976. 529 leaves. ASU APP COLL MIC: MicF 112.

Sovine, Melanie Lou. The Mysterious Melungeons: A Critique of the Mythical Image. Thesis (PhD). Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, 1982. 239 leaves. ASU APP COLL MIC: MicF 415.

Vande Brake, Katherine. Through the Back Door: Melungeon Literacies and 21st Century Technologies. Thesis (PhD). Rhetoric and Technical Communication, Michigan Technological University, 2005. 355 leaves. (Accessed 10/08/2008).

Anthony, Ted. “The Melungeons: Mystery in the Mountains.” The Knoxville News-Sentinel. June 18, 1998. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

“Breakthrough: Genetic Tests Trace History of Melungeon People.” Winston-Salem Journal. May, 17 1993. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Kahn, Chris. “Tracing Melungeon Roots.” Asheville Citizen-Times. July 8, 2001. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

“Researching Mystery Ancestry.” Charlotte Observer. August 15, 1993. ASU APP COLL ’Melungeons’ Clippings File.

Compiled by: 

Compiler: Theresa Burchett, 10 December 1999

Updated by: 

Updated: Kevin S. Clarke, 9 October 2008