Intentional Communities for Sustainable Development in Southern Appalachia


Southern Appalachia is a region that is experiencing a large increase in population growth due to seasonal and full-time immigration for its beautiful and diverse environment. In order to maintain this natural beauty and provide adequate housing to all of Southern Appalachia’s residents, it would be wise to carefully plan communities in housing clusters, promote cooperative social organization, and maintain natural resources through ecologically sound production and consumption. The answer to these problems relies on the development and implementation of environmentally friendly egalitarian communities. Intentional communities, cooperative housing, and eco-villages are becoming more popular and necessary in Southern Appalachia. This document is an introduction to the resources available on intentional communities for sustainable development in Southern Appalachia.

Introductory Text: 

Jackson, Hildur, and Karen Svensson, eds. Ecovillage Living: Restoring the Earth and Her People. Foxhole: Green Books, 2002. ASU Main Stacks GE195.7 .E37 2002.

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 
  • Appalachian Region -- Social conditions
  • Appalachian Region -- Economic conditions
  • Civil Society
  • Collective settlements
  • Collective settlements -- Directories
  • Collective Settlements -- Southern States -- Case Studies
  • Collective settlements -- Tennessee -- History
  • Collective settlements -- United States -- Directories
  • Collective settlements -- United States -- Periodicals
  • Communal Living
  • Communal living – North America--Directories
  • Communitarianism -- Southern States -- Case Studies
  • Twin Oaks Community
  • Social movements
  • Utopias -- History
  • Utopias -- Southern States -- Case Studies
Clipping Files Subject Headings – W. L. Eury Appalachian Collection: 
  • Land Use-Appalachia
Library of Congress Call Numbers: 
  • HC 107
  • HD 7543
  • HM 281
  • HQ 971
  • HX 626-656

At Home in the Web of Life: A Pastoral Message on Sustainable Communities in Appalachia celebrating the 20th Anniversary of This Land is Home to me from the Catholic Bishops of Appalachia. Webster Springs, W.V.: Catholic Committee of Appalachia, 1996. ASU App Coll Stack HC107.A13 A8894 1995.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. A Socialist Utopia in the New South: the Ruskin Colonies in Tennessee and Georgia, 1894-1901. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1996. ASU Main Stacks HX655.S68 B78 1996.

Egerton, John. Visions of Utopia: Nashoba, Rugby, Ruskin, and the “New Communities” in Tennessee’s Past. Knoxville: Published in cooperation with the Tennessee Historical Commission [by] University of Tennessee Press, c1977. ASU App Coll Stack HX655.T2 E37.

Hicks, George L. Experimental Americans: Celo and Utopian Community in the Twentieth Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001. App Coll Stack HX 656 .C45 H53 2001 c.2

Kinkade, Kathleen. A Walden Two Experiment; the First Five Years of the Twin Oaks Community. Foreword by B. F. Skinner. New York, Morrow, 1973. ASU Main Stacks HX656.T9 K5 c.2

Guides, Encyclopedias, and Dictionaries: 

Communities Directory: A Guide to Cooperative Living. Langley, WA: Fellowship for Intentional Community, c1995. 2nd ed. ASU Reference HX654.D57 1995.

Directories of Intentional Communities. Evansville, Ind.: Fellowship for Intentional Community; Stelle, Ill.: Communities Publications Cooperative. ASU Reference HX654.D57 1991.
Morris, James M. and Andrea L. Kross. Historical Dictionary of Utopianism. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2004. ASU Main Stacks HX806 .M626 2004.

Parker, Martin, Valerie Fournier, and Patrick Reedy. The Dictionary of Alternatives: Utopianism and Organization. London: Zed Books, 2007. ASU Main Stacks HX806 .P36 2007.


Miller, Timothy. American Communes, 1860-1960: A Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1990. UNCA Reference HX653 .B1 M55 1990.

Abstracts and Indices: 

Academic Search Premier

Alternative Press Index

American History and Life

Social Science Index



subject headings: Alternative Lifestyles, Collective Settlement, Communes, Communal Living, Cooperative Living, Cooperative Housing, Ecovillages, and Intentional Communities.


Communities Magazine: Journal of Cooperative Living. Found at

The Utne Reader. Minneapolis, MN: Lens Publishing Company, c1984-, v. ill.; 26-28 cm. Bimonthly Summer 1984. Monthly, Feb. 1984-May 1984. ASU Periodicals: Bound: v.51- 1992- Sept/Oct 2002.

Utopian Studies. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Biannual. ASU Web Access, 1997-present.


“Earthaven Ecovillage.” Updated regularly. Found at:

“The Ecovillage Network of the Americas (ENA).” Updated regularly. Found at:

“Federation of Egalitarian Communities.” Updated regularly. Found at:

“Intentional Communities Web Site: Home Page.” Updated regularly. Found at:

“Twin Oaks Intentional Community.” Updated regularly. Found at:

“Welcome to Westwood.” Updated regularly. Found at:

Compiled by: 

Compiler: Brett Dennis Melchior, 6 December 1998

Updated by: 

Updated: Tracy Turner Jarrell, 27 October 2009