River Conservation in Western North Carolina (29 counties as delineated by the ARC designation)


The Appalachian region, as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission, is comprised of 410 counties of 13 different states including all of West Virginia, and parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. This pathfinder concentrates on the rivers that form the river basins and watersheds of the 29 counties of North Carolina included in the ARC area: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Burke, Caldwell, Cherokee, Clay, Davie, Forsyth, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, Stokes, Surry, Swain, Transylvania, Watauga, Wilkes, Yadkin, and Yancey. This pathfinder limits its scope to the rivers that are recognized as river basins by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and are from west to east: the Hiwassee, Little Tennessee, French Broad, Broad, Catawba, Watauga, New, and the Yadkin-Pee Dee. Concentration will be on issues that are of particular interest to environmental and riparian concerns and include the preservation and conservation of these rivers along with the topics of pollution, water quality and development. Riparian is a term often cited and as defined by Webster’s Dictionary as, “of or relating to or located on the banks of a river or stream”. This is the main area in which development threatens the water quality and ecosystem of a river and a zone which is of great concern to river conservationists.

Introductory Text: 

An Assessment of the North Carolina Natural and Scenic Rivers System.

Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Assessment Section

Raleigh, N.C.: The Section, [1990]. WCU State: C 12 309: A84

Library of Congress Subject Headings: 

■ Broad River NC And SC

■ Catawba River NC And SC

■ French Broad River

■ Hiwassee River

■ New River NC WVa

■ Pee Dee River NC And SC History

■ Watauga River NC And Tenn

■ Yadkin River NC

■ Environmental Permits NorthCarolina

■ Fish Habitat Improvement NorthCarolina

■ North Carolina Rivers

■ Rivers -- NorthCarolina -- Management

■ Riparian Areas NorthCarolina

■ Riparian Ecology NorthCarolina

■ Riparian rights -- NorthCarolina

■ Stream Conservation NorthCarolina

■ Stream Ecology

■ Stream Ecology NorthCarolina

■ Water Quality NorthCarolina

■ Wild And Scenic Rivers Economic Aspects

■ Wild and scenic rivers -- Law and legislation -- NorthCarolina

■ Watauga River Watershed (N.C. andTenn.)

■ Stream ecology -- North Carolina, Western

■ Stream conservation -- North Carolina -- Ashe County

■ Stream conservation -- North Carolina -- Alleghany

Clipping Files Subject Headings – W. L. Eury Appalachian Collection: 

■ Canoeing : see Paddling

■ Creeks: see Streams, Rivers, Paddling

■ Economics - Western North Carolina

■ Environment

■ Floods

■ New River

■ Pollution

■ Rafting

■ Streams


■ Allegheny County, NC

■ Christmas Trees: see also Agriculture

■ Fontana Dam

■ Ice Climbing: see Climbing

■ Kayaking: see Paddling

■ New River Dam: see also Allegheny County, NC

■ Pigeon River: see Champion International; Rivers

Library of Congress Call Numbers: 

■ F251-265

■ G3903 (general)

■ G3922 (local)

■ GB980-992, 1001-1199.8, 1201-1598

■ GE 170-190, 300-350

■ GF75

■ GV191.2-200.66

■ HD1635-1702, 1711-1741

■ JS300-1583

■ QH1-199.5 (general), 540-549.5

■ S622-627, 900-972

■ TD169-171.8, 172-193.5, 201-500, 419-428, 429.5-480.7


Diamant, Rolf.A Citizen’s Guide to River Conservation. Wash.D.C. Conservation Foundation, c1984. ASU Main Stacks: QH75 .D52 1984

Hynes, Hugh Bernard Noel. The Ecology of Running Waters. Liverpool. Liverpool Univ. Press. 1970. ASU Main Stacks: QH541.5.S7 H9 1970b

Harper, David M. and Ferguson, Alastair J.D.. The Ecological Basis for River Management.J.Wiley. New York, 1995. WCU General: QH541.5.S7 E26 1995

Winborne, Ferne B. A Guide to Streamwalking. Stream Watch, Division of Water Resources, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development. Raleigh, 1989. WCU State: C 14 102: S91

Guides, Encyclopedias, and Dictionaries: 

The Encyclopedia of Ecology & Environmental Management. Osney Mead, Oxford ; Malden, MA, USA : Blackwell Science, 1998. p.1508-1509. ASU Reference Vol.II: GE300 .E53 1998.

Ashworth, William. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Studies. New York : Facts on File, c1991. UNCA Reference: QH540.4 .A84 1991.

Alexander, David E. and Fairbrige, Rhodes W. eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1999. p. 310. ASU Reference:GE10 .E53 1999.

Cunningham, William P. Environmental Encyclopedia. Detroit : Gale Research, c1994. 1st ed. UNCA Reference: GE10 .E58 1994

Paehlke, Robert. Conservation And Environmentalism : An Encyclopedia. New York : Garland Pub., 1995. UNCA Reference: GE10 .C68 1995

Herschy, Reginald. Encyclopedia of hydrology and water resources. Boston:

Kluwer Academic, 1998. p. 584. ASU Reference: GB655 .E53 1998


Environment, Geology, Natural History, Rivers, Parks. Appalachian Studies Bibliography. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University, c.1994-2003. <http://www.libraries.wvu.edu/bibliography/environment.htm

Environment, Geography and Natural History. Appalachian Studies Association Bibliography. Huntington, WV: c2000-2005.


Bibliography of Rivers and Harbors and Related Fields in Hydraulic Engineering. Princeton, Rivers and Harbors Section, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, c1953.


Economic Geography. Worcester, Mass. Clark Univ. Quarterly, 1925-present. ASU Web Access: Bound: v.14, 1938-v.37, 1961; v.39- 1963-
Web version: v.1, 1925-v.75, 1999
Microfilm: v.1, 1925-v.39, 1963.

Estuaries. Solomons, MD. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, 1978-. Quarterly, 1978-1999, Bimonthly, 2000-. ASU Web Access: Web version: v.1, 1978-v.22, 1999.

Ecological Applications. Tempe, AZ. The Ecological Society of America, 1991-. Quarterly. ASU Bound: v.11- 2001. Web Access: Web version: v.1, 1991-v.10, 2000.


Restoration Ecology. Oxford, UK. Wiley-Blackwell, 1993-. Quarterly. Web Access: Web Version: v.1, 1993-.

Conservation Biology. Oxford, UK. Wiley-Blackwell. 1987-.Bimonthly. Web Access: Web Version: v.1, 1987-.

Audio and Video Sources: 

Protecting The New River Featuring Jeffrey Scott, National Committee For The New River. Producer and Director, Linda Coutant. c.2004. ASU Movies. VC 12383

Other Sources: 

Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere. 2005.

< http://www.samab.org/

“Who Owns the Rivers in North Carolina”. The National Rivers Website. 1999.

< http://www.nationalrivers.org/states/nc-law.htm

“Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program”. National Park Service Rivers and Trails Website. 2004.

< http://www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/nri/states/nc.html

North Carolina Clean Water Management Trust Fund Website. 2005.

< http://www.cwmtf.net/

National Committee for the New River Website. 2005.

< http://www.ncnr.org/>


Conservation Trust for North Carolina. 2011.

< http://www.ctnc.org/site/PageServer

NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2011.

NC Division of Water Quality


NC Division of Water Resources


Watauga River Partners. 2011. (only contact information)


North Carolina Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts. 2011.


Compiled by: 

Adam Kota

November 1, 2005

Updated by: 

Mary Rachel Taylor

October 06, 2011